Fingal’s Cave, located on the Scottish island of Staffa, is a 270-foot-deep, 72-foot-tall sea cave with walls of perfectly hexagonal columns. Queen Victoria, Matthew Barney, Jules Verne, and Pink Floyd are not names you usually hear in the same sentence, but they all share an association with this uncommon place. Fingal’s Cave bears a history and geology unlike any other in the world.

Seventy-two feet tall, two-hundred-seventy feet deep, what makes this sea cave so visually astoundingly is the hexagonal columns of basalt, neat six-sided pillars that make up its interior walls.

The cave was a well-known wonder of the ancient Irish and Scottish celtic people and was an important site in the legends. Known to the celts as Uamh-Binn or “The Cave of Melody,” one Irish legend in particular explained the existence of the cave as well as that of the similar Giant’s Causeway in Ireland. As both are made of the same basalt columns, the legend holds that they were the end pieces of a bridge built by the Irish giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (a.k.a. Finn McCool) to Scotland where he was to fight Benandonner, his gigantic Scottish rival.

The legend, which connects the two structures, is in effect geologically correct. Both the Giant’s Causeway and Fingal’s Cave were indeed created by the same ancient lava flow, which may have at one time formed a “bridge” between the two sites. Of course, this happened some 60 million years ago, long before people would have been around to see it. The Dinosaurs, had already been extinct for some five million years. Nonetheless, the deductive reasoning of the ancient peoples formed the connection and base of the legend that the two places must be related.

Of course, the columns were not formed by gigantic hands as the legend would have it, but rather by an enormous mass of hot lava cooling so slowly that, like mud under the hot sun, it cracked into long hexagonal forms. These pillars make up much of the base of the island of Staffa - Old Norse for “Stave or Pillar,” and named so by the Vikings for the odd geology - where Fingal’s Cave is found.

The cave was rediscovered when naturalist Sir Joseph Banks visited it in 1772. At the time of Banks discovery, “Fingal, an Ancient Epic Poem in Six Books,” was a very popular poetic series supposedly translated from an ancient Gaelic epic by Irish poet James Macpherson.

Despite the fact that Macpherson was being challenged even at the time as to the poems authenticity - the work is believed to owe much more to Macpherson’s skill as a poet than as a historian or translator, and originals of this lost epic were never produced by Macpherson - the work was a massive hit. The book was an influence on Goethe, Napoleon and Sir Banks, who promptly named the Scottish cave, which already had the name Uamh-Binn, after the Irish legend, calling it “Fingal’s Cave.”

And though Banks is responsible for both rediscovering and renaming the cave, it would be a romantic German composer who truly vaulted the cave to world fame. The early romantic period brought with it a change in people’s perspective on nature. Nature was no longer a force to be survived or an enemy of peaceful living. No, wild nature, was becoming a source of inspiration and a desired counterpoint to the urban lifestyle in Europe. So it was that a composer not only came to visit a natural wonder, but chose to compose an overture based on it.

So moved was Mendelssohn by the splendor of the cave that he sent the opening phrase of the overture on a postcard to his sister with the note: “In order to make you understand how extraordinarily the Hebrides affected me, I send you the following, which came into my head there.” The Hebrides Overture, also known as Fingal’s Cave, premiered on May 14, 1832 in London. (The original name may have been based on the amazing noises the cave sometimes produces.)

In a one-two Romantic punch, artist J. M. W. Turner painted “Staffa, Fingal’s Cave” in the same year and together these launched the cave from a little known wonder into a must-see Romantic-Victorian tourist site. William Wordsworth, John Keats, Lord Tennyson, and Queen Victoria all visited the cave as did consummate traveller and lover of wonders Jules Verne. Verne wrote: “This vast cavern with its mysterious shadows, dark, weed-covered chambers and marvelous basaltic pillars, produced upon me a most striking impression and was the the origin of my book … ‘Le Rayon Vert.’”

Novelist Sir Walter Scott described Fingal’s Cave as “…one of the most extraordinary places I ever beheld. It exceeded, in my mind, every description I had heard of it … composed entirely of basaltic pillars as high as the roof of a cathedral, and running deep into the rock, eternally swept by a deep and swelling sea, and paved, as it were, with ruddy marble, baffles all description.”

The cave never left the public imagination. Pink Floyd named one of their early, unreleased songs after the cave - their 1970 “Zabriskie Point” soundtrack sessions is called “Fingal’s Cave”. Matthew Barney also used the cave as a location in “Cremaster 3”, a 2002 fever dream of a film that formed part of his Cremaster Cycle art installation.

Recently, geologists have had to contend with creationists who want to frame both the Giant’s Causeway and Fingal’s Cave as the product of a creationist 5,000-year-old timeline, a timeline which the geology of the sites directly contradicts.

One can visit the cave via cruise (though boats cannot enter the cave, they make regular passes by it) or can travel to the small island of Staffa and hike into the cave by stepping from column to column.

Courtesy: AtlasObscura

Fingal’s Cave, located on the Scottish island of Staffa, is a 270-foot-deep, 72-foot-tall sea cave with walls of perfectly hexagonal columns. Queen Victoria, Matthew Barney, Jules Verne, and Pink Floyd are not names you usually hear in the same sentence, but they all share an association with this uncommon place. Fingal’s Cave bears a history and geology unlike any other in the world.

Seventy-two feet tall, two-hundred-seventy feet deep, what makes this sea cave so visually astoundingly is the hexagonal columns of basalt, neat six-sided pillars that make up its interior walls.

The cave was a well-known wonder of the ancient Irish and Scottish celtic people and was an important site in the legends. Known to the celts as Uamh-Binn or “The Cave of Melody,” one Irish legend in particular explained the existence of the cave as well as that of the similar Giant’s Causeway in Ireland. As both are made of the same basalt columns, the legend holds that they were the end pieces of a bridge built by the Irish giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (a.k.a. Finn McCool) to Scotland where he was to fight Benandonner, his gigantic Scottish rival.

The legend, which connects the two structures, is in effect geologically correct. Both the Giant’s Causeway and Fingal’s Cave were indeed created by the same ancient lava flow, which may have at one time formed a “bridge” between the two sites. Of course, this happened some 60 million years ago, long before people would have been around to see it. The Dinosaurs, had already been extinct for some five million years. Nonetheless, the deductive reasoning of the ancient peoples formed the connection and base of the legend that the two places must be related.

Of course, the columns were not formed by gigantic hands as the legend would have it, but rather by an enormous mass of hot lava cooling so slowly that, like mud under the hot sun, it cracked into long hexagonal forms. These pillars make up much of the base of the island of Staffa - Old Norse for “Stave or Pillar,” and named so by the Vikings for the odd geology - where Fingal’s Cave is found.

The cave was rediscovered when naturalist Sir Joseph Banks visited it in 1772. At the time of Banks discovery, “Fingal, an Ancient Epic Poem in Six Books,” was a very popular poetic series supposedly translated from an ancient Gaelic epic by Irish poet James Macpherson.

Despite the fact that Macpherson was being challenged even at the time as to the poems authenticity - the work is believed to owe much more to Macpherson’s skill as a poet than as a historian or translator, and originals of this lost epic were never produced by Macpherson - the work was a massive hit. The book was an influence on Goethe, Napoleon and Sir Banks, who promptly named the Scottish cave, which already had the name Uamh-Binn, after the Irish legend, calling it “Fingal’s Cave.”

And though Banks is responsible for both rediscovering and renaming the cave, it would be a romantic German composer who truly vaulted the cave to world fame. The early romantic period brought with it a change in people’s perspective on nature. Nature was no longer a force to be survived or an enemy of peaceful living. No, wild nature, was becoming a source of inspiration and a desired counterpoint to the urban lifestyle in Europe. So it was that a composer not only came to visit a natural wonder, but chose to compose an overture based on it.

So moved was Mendelssohn by the splendor of the cave that he sent the opening phrase of the overture on a postcard to his sister with the note: “In order to make you understand how extraordinarily the Hebrides affected me, I send you the following, which came into my head there.” The Hebrides Overture, also known as Fingal’s Cave, premiered on May 14, 1832 in London. (The original name may have been based on the amazing noises the cave sometimes produces.)

In a one-two Romantic punch, artist J. M. W. Turner painted “Staffa, Fingal’s Cave” in the same year and together these launched the cave from a little known wonder into a must-see Romantic-Victorian tourist site. William Wordsworth, John Keats, Lord Tennyson, and Queen Victoria all visited the cave as did consummate traveller and lover of wonders Jules Verne. Verne wrote: “This vast cavern with its mysterious shadows, dark, weed-covered chambers and marvelous basaltic pillars, produced upon me a most striking impression and was the the origin of my book … ‘Le Rayon Vert.’”

Novelist Sir Walter Scott described Fingal’s Cave as “…one of the most extraordinary places I ever beheld. It exceeded, in my mind, every description I had heard of it … composed entirely of basaltic pillars as high as the roof of a cathedral, and running deep into the rock, eternally swept by a deep and swelling sea, and paved, as it were, with ruddy marble, baffles all description.”

The cave never left the public imagination. Pink Floyd named one of their early, unreleased songs after the cave - their 1970 “Zabriskie Point” soundtrack sessions is called “Fingal’s Cave”. Matthew Barney also used the cave as a location in “Cremaster 3”, a 2002 fever dream of a film that formed part of his Cremaster Cycle art installation.

Recently, geologists have had to contend with creationists who want to frame both the Giant’s Causeway and Fingal’s Cave as the product of a creationist 5,000-year-old timeline, a timeline which the geology of the sites directly contradicts.

One can visit the cave via cruise (though boats cannot enter the cave, they make regular passes by it) or can travel to the small island of Staffa and hike into the cave by stepping from column to column.

Courtesy: AtlasObscura

"Druids were thought to have worn hooded robes and carry an oak staff. Some accounts say they shaved their foreheads from ear to ear. There was likely an air of mystery surrounding them and they were highly respected, venerated and even feared. It is said that they were not the image of the pious priest who abstained from sex and lust ” ~ Eckert
image Ph1sch

"Druids were thought to have worn hooded robes and carry an oak staff. Some accounts say they shaved their foreheads from ear to ear. There was likely an air of mystery surrounding them and they were highly respected, venerated and even feared. It is said that they were not the image of the pious priest who abstained from sex and lust ” ~ Eckert

image Ph1sch

A Woman Among Men: Grace O’Malley ~ Ireland’s Pirate Queen
Grace O’Malley (Gráinne Ní Mháille) was a woman of fire and adventure. She was among other things a pirate, mercenary, chieftain and noblewoman in her lifetime. Born in 1530 at Clare Island Castle in Clew Bay, County Mayo, Ireland, she is commonly known by her nicknames "Granuaile" and “The Sea Queen of Connaught” in Irish folklore and history. Hers is a story of feminine empowerment that speaks volumes even today and is one which was boldly out of its time and place.
Her father Owen “Dubhdarra” (Black Oak) O’Malley was a well-known sea captain and chieftain of the Barony of Murrish. The O’Malley family were known for their sailing prowess since 1123 and traded with Spain and Scotland on a regular basis. Grace’s love of the sea was apparent in her early years, she vowed to follow in her father’s footsteps as soon as she was old enough despite her mother’s protestations. She was taught to read Latin and schooled at the castle under the family’s motto “Terra Mariq Potens’” (Invincible on Land and Sea.) Grace continued to insist that she would go to sea and it is said that she once begged her father to take her with him on a trip to Spain. When she was denied because her mother felt it unsuitable for a young lady who was destined to be a noblewoman, she went to her room, cut off her hair and dressed in boy’s clothing. Her father and half brother were greatly amused and she earned the nickname “Grainne Mhaol” (meaning “bald one”). 
Legend has it that she sailed often with her father during her childhood. One tale relates that Grace once saved her father’s life during an attack by an English ship. She had been instructed to go below if the ship was sought upon. When a siege indeed happened, Grace did not go below as ordered, but climbed the rigging instead and leaped forward while screaming thus landing on the back of her father’s assailant. This distraction was enough for the O’Malley crew to gain control of the conflict.
In adult life, Grace was married to Donal O’Flaherty in 1546 when aged sixteen. Marriages in those days were arranged by the families and this was considered quite a match. Donal was the “tánaiste” or heir to The O”Flaherty seat, the head of the clan and chieftain of all ‘Iar Connaught’. During this time, she became actively immersed in politics, fishing, trading and tribal disputes. As time passed, she eventually overshadowed her husband and became well respected by the men of the clan. She soon became head of the clan’s fleet of ships, which was greatly unusual for the times.   
The city of Galway, one of the largest trade centers in the British Isles, refused to trade with the O’Flaherty clan. In recompense, Grace would sweep down on approaching vessels in her galleys thereby waylaying them. She would then bargain with the ship captains for a fee of safe passage (an extortionist tactic of the times). If her demands were refused, she would let her crew pillage the ships before letting them go their way.
Her husband Donal died in a fight with a rival clan. As his widow Grace was entitled to one third of her husband’s estates, but unfairly, this was never paid to her. She returned to the O’Malley clan with her three children and 200 of her husband’s followers where she made her home on Clare Island. Between piracy and charging for safe passage she regained her riches. She soon had a thriving piracy empire with control of five prominent castles in the area.
Rockfleet Castle on the northeast side of Clew Bay belonged to the powerful Richard Bourke. Grace valued the property for its important location as she used her string of outposts as defensive fortifications. Legend has it that Grace went to Castle Rockfleet, knocked on the door and proposed marriage of one year as allowed by Brehon Law to Bourke. She explained the union would allow both clans to resist the British invasion that was taking Irish lands around them. Bourke agreed to the arrangement and when Grace offered to release him at the end of the year he declined because he had fallen in love with her. She however did not share his feelings and said to him “Richard Bourke, I dismiss you.” Those words had the effect of ending the marriage, but since she was in possession of the castle she kept it. Despite this proclamation of divorce, she and Bourke are mentioned as husband and wife in documents of the period so apparently the couple remained married or at least allied until his death seventeen years later. Grace had a son with Bourke, Theobald nicknamed “Tibbot of the Ships” who was born about 1567. Tibbot was later knighted as Sir Theobald Bourke and was created first Viscount Mayo in 1626 by Charles I.
The English continued to take much of the land, either by force or offering the Irish lords English titles and thereby peace. Grace, always independent, refused to be bought and continued to rebel against the English invasion of her land and country.
At the age 56, Grace was captured by the ruthless English Governor Richard Bingham who was determined to stop her piracy and rebellion. Bingham arrested Grace and some of her followers and planned to hang her. As she awaited execution, she continued to retain her dignity and refused to plead for mercy. Before the execution was to take place, her son-in-law offered himself as a hostage and curiously she was released. While she made a tentative agreement to stop her sea activity, Bingham nonetheless stripped her of her cattle, horses and some of her lands which again forced her into poverty.
The Irish rebellion continued during these years. There was much fighting and loss of life and lands. The Spanish Armada patrolled the Irish coasts and were waging war against the English. Grace dispatched hundreds of Spaniards on the ship of Don Pedro de Mendoza near the castle on Clare Island in 1588. She was well into her late fifties by this time and proved to be as fierce at this age as in her younger years.
In 1593, Bingham again fearful of her influence, worried that Grace would impact the rebellion. He had her son and brother arrested. Although she was virtually penniless at this time and unable to raise much of a force against the English, he attempted to keep her in his control by these efforts. Grace appealed to the English Queen, Elizabeth during this time asking for the release of her family and help in regaining her lands. She sailed to England herself in a daring move unheard of at the time. 
No one knows why Elizabeth agreed to see Grace, but they met in September of 1593 at Greenwich Palace. The English Queen apparently took to Grace, who was three years older. Their discussion was carried out in Latin, as Grace spoke no English and Elizabeth spoke no Irish. Being of a bold and physical nature, she may have seemed out of place in the genteel English Court even though she was fashionably attired in an expensive gown in the style of the day. Grace refused to bow before Elizabeth because she did not recognize her as the Queen of Ireland. A story is told in which Grace is said to have sneezed during her audience. A member of the court handed her an expensive lace handkerchief in which she proceeded to blow her nose and then toss into the fire. The court was aghast at what seemed rude to them. To throw such an expensive gift into the fire was thought intolerably coarse. The Queen gently chided her and told her she should have put it into her pocket instead. Grace replied that the Irish did not put soiled articles into their pockets and therefore must have a higher sense of cleanliness. A nervous chord of laughter began in the court which turned into a loud roar of amusement. The Queen laughed and the seeming effrontery was turned into an ice-breaking moment of humour. The two, after much talk, agreed to a list of demands. Elizabeth was to remove Richard Bingham from his position in Ireland, and Grace was to stop supporting the Irish Lords’ rebellions. She sailed back to Ireland with the belief that the meeting had done good as Richard Bingham was removed from service. However, several other demands (i.e. - the return of the cattle and land that Bingham had stolen from her) remained unmet. Within a rather short period of time, Bingham was sent back to Ireland. Upon his return, Grace realized that the meeting with Elizabeth had been useless and went back to supporting Irish rebellions. Disappointed, Grace only nominally directing her raids against the “enemies of England” during the Nine Years War, and thusly maintained her end of the bargain despite the fact that the favour had not been returned.
Grace most likely died at Rockfleet Castle around 1603, while in her 70’s, the same year as Elizabeth, though the date and place of death are disputed. More than 20 years later, an English lord deputy of Ireland recalled her ability as a leader of fighting men, noting her fame and favour which still existed among the Irish people.
The Pirate Queen was a fearless warrior and was active on the sea well into her sixties. In her lifetime she maintained the old principles of the Gaelic and Brehon systems of law. She was able to survive with style and courage unheard of in her time. She was a revered and honoured Chieftain of her people and is remembered as such even today…
(seen portrayed here by model/actress Lily Cole)

A Woman Among Men: Grace O’Malley ~ Ireland’s Pirate Queen

Grace O’Malley (Gráinne Ní Mháille) was a woman of fire and adventure. She was among other things a pirate, mercenary, chieftain and noblewoman in her lifetime. Born in 1530 at Clare Island Castle in Clew Bay, County Mayo, Ireland, she is commonly known by her nicknames "Granuaile" and “The Sea Queen of Connaught” in Irish folklore and history. Hers is a story of feminine empowerment that speaks volumes even today and is one which was boldly out of its time and place.

Her father Owen “Dubhdarra” (Black Oak) O’Malley was a well-known sea captain and chieftain of the Barony of Murrish. The O’Malley family were known for their sailing prowess since 1123 and traded with Spain and Scotland on a regular basis. Grace’s love of the sea was apparent in her early years, she vowed to follow in her father’s footsteps as soon as she was old enough despite her mother’s protestations. She was taught to read Latin and schooled at the castle under the family’s motto “Terra Mariq Potens’” (Invincible on Land and Sea.) Grace continued to insist that she would go to sea and it is said that she once begged her father to take her with him on a trip to Spain. When she was denied because her mother felt it unsuitable for a young lady who was destined to be a noblewoman, she went to her room, cut off her hair and dressed in boy’s clothing. Her father and half brother were greatly amused and she earned the nickname “Grainne Mhaol” (meaning “bald one”). 

Legend has it that she sailed often with her father during her childhood. One tale relates that Grace once saved her father’s life during an attack by an English ship. She had been instructed to go below if the ship was sought upon. When a siege indeed happened, Grace did not go below as ordered, but climbed the rigging instead and leaped forward while screaming thus landing on the back of her father’s assailant. This distraction was enough for the O’Malley crew to gain control of the conflict.

In adult life, Grace was married to Donal O’Flaherty in 1546 when aged sixteen. Marriages in those days were arranged by the families and this was considered quite a match. Donal was the “tánaiste” or heir to The O”Flaherty seat, the head of the clan and chieftain of all ‘Iar Connaught’. During this time, she became actively immersed in politics, fishing, trading and tribal disputes. As time passed, she eventually overshadowed her husband and became well respected by the men of the clan. She soon became head of the clan’s fleet of ships, which was greatly unusual for the times.   

The city of Galway, one of the largest trade centers in the British Isles, refused to trade with the O’Flaherty clan. In recompense, Grace would sweep down on approaching vessels in her galleys thereby waylaying them. She would then bargain with the ship captains for a fee of safe passage (an extortionist tactic of the times). If her demands were refused, she would let her crew pillage the ships before letting them go their way.

Her husband Donal died in a fight with a rival clan. As his widow Grace was entitled to one third of her husband’s estates, but unfairly, this was never paid to her. She returned to the O’Malley clan with her three children and 200 of her husband’s followers where she made her home on Clare Island. Between piracy and charging for safe passage she regained her riches. She soon had a thriving piracy empire with control of five prominent castles in the area.

Rockfleet Castle on the northeast side of Clew Bay belonged to the powerful Richard Bourke. Grace valued the property for its important location as she used her string of outposts as defensive fortifications. Legend has it that Grace went to Castle Rockfleet, knocked on the door and proposed marriage of one year as allowed by Brehon Law to Bourke. She explained the union would allow both clans to resist the British invasion that was taking Irish lands around them. Bourke agreed to the arrangement and when Grace offered to release him at the end of the year he declined because he had fallen in love with her. She however did not share his feelings and said to him “Richard Bourke, I dismiss you.” Those words had the effect of ending the marriage, but since she was in possession of the castle she kept it. Despite this proclamation of divorce, she and Bourke are mentioned as husband and wife in documents of the period so apparently the couple remained married or at least allied until his death seventeen years later. Grace had a son with Bourke, Theobald nicknamed “Tibbot of the Ships” who was born about 1567. Tibbot was later knighted as Sir Theobald Bourke and was created first Viscount Mayo in 1626 by Charles I.

The English continued to take much of the land, either by force or offering the Irish lords English titles and thereby peace. Grace, always independent, refused to be bought and continued to rebel against the English invasion of her land and country.

At the age 56, Grace was captured by the ruthless English Governor Richard Bingham who was determined to stop her piracy and rebellion. Bingham arrested Grace and some of her followers and planned to hang her. As she awaited execution, she continued to retain her dignity and refused to plead for mercy. Before the execution was to take place, her son-in-law offered himself as a hostage and curiously she was released. While she made a tentative agreement to stop her sea activity, Bingham nonetheless stripped her of her cattle, horses and some of her lands which again forced her into poverty.

The Irish rebellion continued during these years. There was much fighting and loss of life and lands. The Spanish Armada patrolled the Irish coasts and were waging war against the English. Grace dispatched hundreds of Spaniards on the ship of Don Pedro de Mendoza near the castle on Clare Island in 1588. She was well into her late fifties by this time and proved to be as fierce at this age as in her younger years.

In 1593, Bingham again fearful of her influence, worried that Grace would impact the rebellion. He had her son and brother arrested. Although she was virtually penniless at this time and unable to raise much of a force against the English, he attempted to keep her in his control by these efforts. Grace appealed to the English Queen, Elizabeth during this time asking for the release of her family and help in regaining her lands. She sailed to England herself in a daring move unheard of at the time. 

No one knows why Elizabeth agreed to see Grace, but they met in September of 1593 at Greenwich Palace. The English Queen apparently took to Grace, who was three years older. Their discussion was carried out in Latin, as Grace spoke no English and Elizabeth spoke no Irish. Being of a bold and physical nature, she may have seemed out of place in the genteel English Court even though she was fashionably attired in an expensive gown in the style of the day. Grace refused to bow before Elizabeth because she did not recognize her as the Queen of Ireland. A story is told in which Grace is said to have sneezed during her audience. A member of the court handed her an expensive lace handkerchief in which she proceeded to blow her nose and then toss into the fire. The court was aghast at what seemed rude to them. To throw such an expensive gift into the fire was thought intolerably coarse. The Queen gently chided her and told her she should have put it into her pocket instead. Grace replied that the Irish did not put soiled articles into their pockets and therefore must have a higher sense of cleanliness. A nervous chord of laughter began in the court which turned into a loud roar of amusement. The Queen laughed and the seeming effrontery was turned into an ice-breaking moment of humour. The two, after much talk, agreed to a list of demands. Elizabeth was to remove Richard Bingham from his position in Ireland, and Grace was to stop supporting the Irish Lords’ rebellions. She sailed back to Ireland with the belief that the meeting had done good as Richard Bingham was removed from service. However, several other demands (i.e. - the return of the cattle and land that Bingham had stolen from her) remained unmet. Within a rather short period of time, Bingham was sent back to Ireland. Upon his return, Grace realized that the meeting with Elizabeth had been useless and went back to supporting Irish rebellions. Disappointed, Grace only nominally directing her raids against the “enemies of England” during the Nine Years War, and thusly maintained her end of the bargain despite the fact that the favour had not been returned.

Grace most likely died at Rockfleet Castle around 1603, while in her 70’s, the same year as Elizabeth, though the date and place of death are disputed. More than 20 years later, an English lord deputy of Ireland recalled her ability as a leader of fighting men, noting her fame and favour which still existed among the Irish people.

The Pirate Queen was a fearless warrior and was active on the sea well into her sixties. In her lifetime she maintained the old principles of the Gaelic and Brehon systems of law. She was able to survive with style and courage unheard of in her time. She was a revered and honoured Chieftain of her people and is remembered as such even today…

(seen portrayed here by model/actress Lily Cole)

Cu Chulainn by Tsabo6